UL 9540A:2019 Test Method for Evaluating Thermal Runaway Fire Propagation in Battery Energy Storage Systems.
1.1 The test methodology in this standard determines the capability of a battery technology to undergo thermal runaway and then evaluates the fire and explosion hazard characteristics of those battery energy storage systems that have demonstrated a capability to undergo thermal runaway.
1.2 The data generated will be used to determine the fire and explosion protection required for an installation of a battery energy storage system intended for installation, operation and maintenance in accordance with ICC IFC, NFPA 1, NFPA 70, IEEE C2, CAN/CSA 022.2 No. 0, and other codes affecting energy storage systems, and the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
1.3 Fire protection requirements not related to battery energy storage system equipment are covered by appropriate installation codes.
1.4 See Figure 1.1 for a schematic of the test sequence in this standard. See Annex A which explains:
a) The purpose of the tests included in this standard;
b) Explanation of individual tests; and
c) Interpretation and application of the results.
2 Units of Measurement
2.1 Values stated without parentheses are the requirement. Values in parentheses are a soft conversion
from SI to IP units of the requirement.
3 Normative References
3.1 Any undated reference to a code or standard appearing in the requirements of this standard shall be interpreted as referring to the latest edition of that code or standard.
3.2 The following model codes or standards are referenced in this standard.
ASHRAE 34, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants
ASTM D93, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
ASTM D3828, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester
ASTM E502, Standard Test Method for Selection and Use of ASTM Standards for the Determination of Flash Point of Chemicals by Closed Cup Methods
ASTM E918, Standard Practice for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated
Temperature and Pressure
CSA C22. 1, Canadian Electrical Code, Part I Safety Standard for Electrical Installations CAN/CSA C22.2 No. 0, General Requirements — Canadian Electrical Code, Part II
EN 15967, Determination of Maximum Explosion Pressure and the Maximum Rate of Pressure Rise of Gases and Vapours
ICC IFC, International Fire Code (IFC)
IEEE C2, National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)
ISO 817, Refrigerants — Designation and Safety Classification
NFPA 1, Fire Code
NFPA 68, Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting
NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code
NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction.UL 9540A pdf download.