ISO/TS 23625:2021 Small craft — Lithium-ion batteries.
4.12 Multiple contactors are permitted (HVC, LVC, plus main), each providing specific protection from high voltage, low voltage and load isolation. A single main contactor is permitted, if the control system provides for protection from all conditions.
5 Safe operating limits
5.1 The safe operating limits of a lithium-ion battery are defined by the manufacturer and are comprised of high and low voltage limits, charging and discharge current limits, and charging and discharging temperature limits, etc. The SOL shall be adhered to during the design, installation, storage, and operation of a lithium-ion battery.
All lithium-ion batteries lose capacity through cycling and overtime. Capacity is also adversely affected by operating at higher temperatures and maintaining a lithium-ion battery in a high SOC and/or extended periods at a low SOC. This needs to be taken into account in terms of the SOL.
5.2 Overcharging can cause damage to the cells, and shall be prevented by using a BMS appropriate for the installation.
5.3 Lithium-ion batteries have very strict temperature operating limits established by the battery/cell manufacturers. To prevent damage and potentially hazardous conditions, the system shall be operated within specified operating temperatures under all operating conditions.
For craft in long term storage, the battery installation should follow the manufacturer-recommended battery storage procedures, based on ambient temperature, connected charging sources, and parasitic loads.
6 General lithium-ion battery installations
6.1 Lithium-ion batteries should not be installed in locations where temperatures outside (high or low) acceptable parameters can be expected to occur. Battery manufacturer installation specifications shall he met. This consideration should extend to areas that can he heated from the sun or other external heat sources.
Consideration should be given to avoiding potential hot spots.
6.2 System connections and BMS electronics should be protected from corrosion.
6.3 Lithium-ion batteries should be installed in locations that prevent damage from shock and vibration, unless batteries are approved specifically for that application by the manufacturer.
6.4 Lithium-ion battery systems should be constructed or installed so that they do not have their safe operation jeopardized, during normal craft operation, by the damaging effects of exposure to water.
Components exposed to water should he in a 1P67 rated container.
6.5 Devices located in compartments that require ignition protection should be protected against ignition in accordance with ISO 8846.ISO/TS 23625 pdf download.