BS ISO 16134:2020 Earthquake-resistant and subsidence- resistant design of ductile iron pipelines.
4.2 Qualitative design considerations
4.2.1 General
To increase the resistance of ductile iron pipelines to seismic hazards, the following qualitative design measures should be taken into consideration.
a) Provide pipelines with expansion/contraction and deflection capability.
EXAMPLE Use of shorter pipe segments, special joints or sleeves and anti-slip-out mechanisms according to the anticipated intensity or nature of the earthquake.
b) Lay pipelines in a firm foundation.
c) Use smooth back fill materials.
NOTE Polyethylene sleeves and special coating are also effective in special cases.
d) Install more valves.
4.2.2 Where high earthquake resistance is needed
It is desirable to enhance the earthquake resistance of parts connecting the pipelines to structures and
when burying the pipes in
a) soft ground such as alluvium,
b) reclaimed ground,
c) filled ground,
d) suddenly changing soil types (geology) or topography,
e) sloping ground,
f) near revetments,
g) liquefiable ground, and/or
4.3 Design procedure
To make earthquake-resistant design for ductile iron pipelines:
a) select the piping route;
b) investigate the potential for earthquakes and ground movement;
c) assume probable earthquake motion (seismic intensity);
d) undertake earthquake resistance calculation and safety checking;
e) select joints.
Solid/firm foundations should be chosen for the pipeline route.
When investigating earthquakes and ground conditions, take into account any previous earthquakes in the area where the pipeline is to be laid.
4.4 Earthquake resistance calculations and safety checking
When checking the resistance of pipelines to the effects of earthquakes, the calculation shall be carried out for the condition in which the normal load (dead load and normal live load) is combined with the influence of the earthquake.
The pipe body stress, expansion/contraction value of joint, and deflection angle of joint are calculated by the response displacement method. Earthquake resistance is checked by comparing these values with their respective allowable values. The basic criteria are given in Table 1.
A flowchart of earthquake resistance determination and safety checking is shown in Figure 1. The basic formulae only for earthquake resistance calculation are given in 4.5. A detailed example of calculation is given in Annex A.
BS ISO 16134 pdf download.