ACI 332.1R-18 Guide to Residential Concrete Construction.
188.8.131.52 Shrinkage reducing admixtures―Although not often used in residential construction, shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRAs) can be used to reduce drying shrinkage that mainly results from surface tension developed in the small pores of the cement paste of concrete. The SRA reduces shrinkage by reducing the surface tension of water in the pores. Normal dosage rates range from 0.5 to 1.5 gal./ yd 3 (2.5 to 7.4 L/m 3 ). The applicable standard for SRAs is ASTM C494/C494M Type S. For more information, refer to ACI 360R. 3.2.8 Fibers 184.108.40.206 Synthetic fbers—Synthetic fbers are man-made fbers manufactured by the petrochemical and textile indus- tries. The largest use of synthetic fbers (acrylic, aramid, carbon, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, and polypropylene) is in slab-on-ground construction. Table 220.127.116.11 provides a description of fber properties and use. Further informa- tion on synthetic fbers can be found in ACI 544.1R, ASTM C1116/C1116M, NRMCA CIP 24, and PCA EB001. 18.104.22.168 Steel fbers—Steel fbers are seeing increased usage in slabs-on-ground. Table 22.214.171.124 provides a descrip- tion of fber properties and use. Further discussion of the benefts of steel fbers can be found in ACI 544.1R. The applicable standard and classifcation for steel fbers is found in ASTM A820/A820M. 3.2.9 Mineral pigments—Mineral pigments meeting ASTM C979/C979M requirements can be added to color the concrete.
126.96.36.199 Slump—One measure of concrete consistency or workability (fowability) is called slump. A slump test (ASTM C143/C143M) measures the consistency of the concrete for slumps up to 9 in. (200 mm), and a modifed slump-fow test (ASTM C1611/C1611M) for self-consol- idating concrete (SCC) measures a mixture with greater fuidity. The slump test is performed by flling a truncated cone (Fig. 188.8.131.52a) with concrete and measuring how much the concrete subsides, or slumps, when the cone is lifted. Residential concrete is generally placed with a slump of 4 to 6 in. (100 to 150 mm). A higher slump of 6 to 9 in. (150 to 200 mm) (Fig. 184.108.40.206b) indicates that the concrete is more workable than a lower slump of 1 to 3 in. (25 to 75 mm) (Fig. 220.127.116.11c). Lower-slump concrete is stifer and more dif- cult to place into formwork, consolidate, and fnish. High slumps, if achieved by only adding water, will result in lower compressive strengths, greater shrinkage characteristics, and freezing-and-thawing resistance problems if the total amount of water added exceeds the maximum w/cm designed for the mixture. ACI 332-14 Table 5.1 has maximum slump require- ments for diferent exposures of concrete.
18.104.22.168 Slump fow—The slump-fow test (ASTM C1611/ C1611M) is a procedure used to determine the fuidity or flling ability characteristics of SCC in the absence of obstruc- tions (Fig. 22.214.171.124) and is measured in terms of the amount of spread the mixture achieves. The normal spread for SCC is 18 to 32 in. (460 to 810 mm). The slump-fow test is a better indicator to determine the workability for SCC than the usual slump cone procedure (ASTM C143/C143M). Within the ASTM C1611/C1611M test method, there are two procedures: upright mold (Procedure A) and inverted mold (Procedure B). The inverted mold makes testing the slump fow a little easier because the cone experiences less uplift as it is flled.ACI 332.1R pdf download.