ACI 318.2-19 Building Code Requirements for Concrete Thin Shells (ACI 318.2-19).
Mary (1951) described the preparation of slag cement by the Trief wet-process and its use in the Bort-les-Orgues Dam. This was done after World War II when the supply of portland cement was limited. The dam involved 660,000 m 3 (863,000 yd 3 ) of concrete. The slag was ground wet and charged into the mixer as a thick slurry. A sample of the Trief wet-process cement was obtained by the Corps of Engineers in December 1950 and tested at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) (Waterways Experi- ment Station 1953). In the WES tests, the behavior of the ground slag from Europe was compared with slag ground in the laboratory from expanded slag from Birmingham, Ala. Each slag was activated with 1.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.5% sodium chloride by mass, with generally similar results. In the former Soviet Union and several European countries, the use of slag cement in alkali-activated systems where no portland cement is used has been found to provide special properties (Talling and Brandstetr 1989). The first recorded production of blended cement in which blast-furnace slag was combined with portland cement was in Germany in 1892; the first United States production was in 1896. By 1980, the use of slag cement in the production of blended cement accounted for nearly 20% of the total hydraulic cement produced in Europe (Hogan and Meusel 1981).
1.3—Terminology 1.3.1 Definitions blast-furnace slag—the nonmetallic product, consisting essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium and of other bases, that is developed in a molten condition simulta- neously with iron in a blast furnace. air-cooled blast-furnace slag—the material resulting from solidification of molten blast-furnace slag under atmo- spheric conditions; subsequent cooling may be accelerated by application of water to the solidified surface. expanded blast-furnace slag—the lightweight, cellular material obtained by controlled processing of molten blast- furnace slag with water or water and other agents, such as steam, compressed air, or both. granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) —the glassy granular material formed when molten blast-furnace slag is rapidly chilled, as by immersion in water. ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS)—see cement, slag. In this report, the more commonly used “slag cement” has replaced ground granulated blast-furnace slag. cement, blended —a hydraulic cement consisting essen- tially of an intimate and uniform blend of granulated blast- furnace slag and hydrated lime; or an intimate and uniform blend of portland cement and granulated blast-furnace slag, portland cement, and pozzolan, or portland blast-furnace slag cement and pozzolan, produced by intergrinding port- land cement clinker with the other materials or by blending portland cement with the other materials, or a combination of intergrinding and blending.ACI 318.2 pdf download.