AATCC M1-2017 AATCC Standard Reference Detergents and Laundry Detergents in General.
3. Rationale for Using 1993 AATCC Standard Reference Detergent
3.1 With this background and especially the environmental concerns with the use of phosphates, new AATCC Standard Reference Detergents, with and without brightener, were developed in 1993 and are still used today. These concentrated powder formulations use carbonate builder instead of phosphate and were created without enzymes due to possible changes of enzyme strength over the storage life of the product.
3.2 Laboratory comparisons between 1993 AATCC Standard Reference Detergents and consumer products would likely show differences in washing performance. However, comparison among consumer products could also show dif- ferences of similar or even greater magnitude.
3.3 One of the factors leading to possi- ble differences between results using the 1993 AATCC Standard Reference Detergents and current consumer detergent products is water hardness. In hard water situations, the 1993 AATCC Standard Reference Detergents may give better soil removal results because they are more effective across a broader range of hardness than most consumer products.
3.4 Other Standard Reference Deter- gents are used in various ISO test methods. These detergents are specified in methods designed for home laundering equipment sold outside the United states.
3.5 AATCC 1993 formula is suitable for toploading machine and accelerated (Launderometer) testing. It is not suitable for high efficiency top loading or front loading machines.
4. Rationale for using AATCC Liquid Detergents
4.1 Due to the growing market share of liquid detergents, AATCC saw the need and developed a liquid standard reference detergent that was relevant to the current laundry market.
4.2 Although powder and liquid detergents are designed to provide cleaning and stain removal, they achieve these objectives differently. A key difference is the pH regime in which the two product forms operate. Powder detergents perform optimally at higher pHs (pH ≈ 10). This higher alkalinity helps stain removal efficiency; however it also negatively impacts fibers and dyes. Over the years, technologies have been developed to deliver benefits under alkaline conditions and powder detergents have been able to overcome many of their initial disadvanges.
4.3 Liquid detergents perform optimally at lower alkalinity (pH ≈ 8.5). Be-ause this pH is closer to neutrality, liquid laundry detergents tend to be less harsh on fibers and dyes. Over the years, technologies have been developed to help liquid laundry detergents deliver stronger cleaning benefits while remaining less harsh on fibers and dyes. Due to significant formulation differences between powder and liquid laundry detergents, different reference detergents are needed to fairly represent them.
4.4 AATCC’s first liquid detergent was the 2003 formula, with and without brightener, and was suitable for tradi- tional toploading machines. Its use was discontinued in 2016 as a newer formula was developed that could be used in both traditional and high efficiency machines.
4.5 The 2015 HE Standard Reference Detergent, available with and without brightener, is the current recommended standard liquid for both traditional toploading and high efficiency machines. Testing of this detergent at the time of its introduction showed that its stain re- moval performance was comparable to current consumer detergents.AATCC M1 pdf download.