AATCC 20-2018 Fiber Analysis: Qualitative.
2. Use and Limitations
2.1 This test method describes a number of procedures—microscopical examination, solubility in solvents, melting point, refractive index, and micro Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy—which should be used in combination to identify a fiber type. For identifying certain fibers some procedures will be found to be more effective than others.
2.1.1 For example, microscopical examination is particularly useful in characterizing the natural fibers. It must be used with caution on manmade fibers since they are frequently produced in a number of modifications which alter the longitudinal or cross-sectional appearance. In addition, manmade fibers may contain some or no delusterant or other additive particles. Filaments of a given type may vary in size or cross-sectional shape. Individual filaments may have two or more component sections of the same or differ- ent generic types.
2.1.2 Even natural fibers show a fairly wide variation in typical cross-section. No specific specimen will look exactly like the pictures published. A sufficient number of fibers should be examined to cover the range of appearance in any specimen.
2.2 Successful identification of fibers depends upon experience and familiarity with the fibers. The identification of an unknown fiber is best made by comparison with properly identified fibers used as reference standards. For this reason it is desirable to have available at least one representative fiber sample from each ge- neric class of fibers, which can be used for comparative identification.
2.3 This test method provides means for identifying the generic classification of the common fiber types. In special cases, as when dealing with fibers not described in this method or attempting to distinguish between products of different suppliers of the same generic types, one must consult standard texts on fiber iden- tification or technical bulletins issued by suppliers of manmade fibers. See refer- ences Section 13.
3. Terminology
3.1 For definitions of technical terms, refer to the Glossary of AATCC Standard Terminology in this Technical Manual.
4. Safety Precautions NOTE: These safety precautions are for information purposes only. The pre- cautions are ancillary to the testing proce- dures and are not intended to be all inclusive. It is the user’s responsibility to use safe and proper techniques in handling materials in this test method. Manufacturers MUST be consulted for specific details such as material safety data sheets and other manufacturer’s recommendations. All OSHA standards and rules must also be consulted and followed.
4.1 Good laboratory practices should be followed. Wear safety glasses in all laboratory areas.
4.2 All chemicals should be handled with care.
4.3 In preparing, dispensing and handling the reagents outlined in Section 6, use chemical goggles or face shield, impervious gloves and an impervious apron. Concentrated acids should be handled only in an adequately ventilated laboratory hood. CAUTION: Always add acid to water.
4.4 All poisonous and flammable reagents should be mixed and handled only in an adequately ventilated laboratory hood. CAUTION: Acetone and ethyl al- cohol are highly flammable and should be stored in the laboratory only in small containers away from heat, open flame and sparks.
4.5 An eyewash/safety shower should be located nearby and an organic vapor respirator should be readily available for emergency use.
4.6 Exposure to chemicals used in this procedure must be controlled at or below levels set by governmental authorities (e.g., Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s [OSHA] permissible ex- posure limits [PEL] as found in 29 CFR 1910.1000; see web site: www.osha.gov for latest version). In addition, the American Conference of Governmental Indus- trial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) comprised of time weighted averages (TLV-TWA), short term exposure limits (TLV-STEL) and ceiling limits (TLV-C) are recommended as a general guide for air contaminant ex- posure which should be met (see 12.1).AATCC 20 pdf download.