AATCC 193-2007 Aqueous Liquid Repellency: Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test.
1.1 This test method can be used to determine the efficacy of a protective finish that is capable of imparting a low energy surface on all types of fabrics, by evaluat- ing the fabric’s resistance to wetting by a selected series of water/alcohol solutions of different surface tensions.
2. Principle
2.1 Drops of standard test liquids, con- sisting of a selected series of water/ alcohol solutions with varying surface tensions, are placed on the fabric surface and observed for wetting, wicking and contact angle. The aqueous repellency grade is the highest numbered test liquid which does not wet the fabric surface. (The scale ranges from zero to eight, with a rating of eight signifying the most repellent surface.)
3. Terminology
3.1 grade, n.—in textile testing, the symbol for any step of a multi-step stan- dard reference scale for a quality characteristic. NOTE: The grade is assigned to test specimens exhibiting a degree of the quality comparable to that step of the standard.
3.2 aqueous repellency, n.—in textiles, the characteristic of a fiber, yarn or fabric whereby it resists wetting by aqueous liquids.
4. Safety Precautions NOTE: These safety precautions are for information purposes only. The pre- cautions are ancillary to the testing proce- dures and are not intended to be all inclusive. It is the user’s responsibility to use safe and proper techniques in handling materials in this test method. Manufac- turers MUST be consulted for specific details such as material safety data sheets and other manufacturer’s recommenda- tions. All OSHA standards and rules must also be consulted and followed.
4.1 Good laboratory practices should be followed. Wear safety glasses and im- pervious gloves when handling test liq- uids in all laboratory areas.
4.2 The alcohol specified in this method is flammable. Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame. Use with ad- equate ventilation. Avoid prolonged breathing of vapor or contact with skin. Do not take internally.
4.3 Exposure to chemicals used in this procedure must be controlled at or below levels set by governmental authorities [e.g., Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) permissible expo- sure limits (PEL) as found in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1000 of January 1, 1989]. In addition, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) comprised of time weighted averages (TLV-TWA), short term exposure limits (TLV-STEL) and ceiling limits (TLV-C) are recommended as a general guide for air contaminant exposure which should be met (see 12.1).
5. Uses and Limitations
5.1 This test method is not intended to give an absolute measure of the resis- tance of the fabric to staining by all aque- ous materials. Other factors, such as composition and viscosity of the aqueous substances, fabric construction, fiber type, dyes, other finishing agents, etc., also influence stain resistance. This test can, however, provide a rough index of aqueous stain resistance, in that generally the higher the aqueous solution repellency grade, the better resistance to stain- ing by aqueous materials, especially liquid aqueous substances. This is particularly true when comparing various finishes for a given fabric.AATCC 193 pdf download.