AATCC 154-2006 Thermal Fixation Properties of Disperse Dyes.
2. Principle
2.1 The dye is padded onto the blend fabric at a specified concentration; the fabric is dried and the dye is fixed by exposure to controlled conditions of time and temperature. The cotton portion of the blend is dissolved in concentrated sul- furic acid followed by neutralization and thorough rinsing.
2.2 The reflectance values of the dyed fabrics, exposed to the several fixation conditions, are determined by spectrophotometry and the concentrations of dye relative to the heaviest dyeing (as 100%) are evaluated by applying the KubelkaMunk function (K/S). These results ex- press the relative dye fixation for a partic- ular set of dyeing conditions. Alternatively, the dye on the fabric can be extracted with a suitable solvent and the concentrations of dye determined by transmittance spectrophotometry. When the dye concentrations on the fixed sam- ples are compared to the corresponding concentration on a padded but unfixed sample, a measure of the true dye fixation, as a function of applied dye, may be obtained.
3. Terminology
3.1 disperse dye, n.—an essentially water insoluble dye having affinity, when properly dispersed, for polyester, polyamide and some other manufactured polymeric fibers.
3.2 thermal fixation, n.—the use of dry heat to achieve a degree of permanence when applying colorants to textile materials.
4. Safety Precautions NOTE: These safety precautions are for information purposes only. The pre- cautions are ancillary to the testing procedures and are not intended to be all inclusive. It is the user’s responsibility to use safe and proper techniques in handling materials in this test method. Manufacturers MUST be consulted for specific details such as material safety data sheets and other manufacturer’s recommenda- tions. All OSHA standards and rules must also be consulted and followed.
4.1 Good laboratory practices should be followed. Wear safety glasses in all laboratory areas.
4.2 All chemicals should be handled with care.
4.3 Perform leaching procedure (see 7.3) using sulfuric acid, 70%, in a hood. In preparing, dispensing and handling sulfuric acid, use chemical goggles or face shield, impervious gloves and an im- pervious apron. Concentrated acids should be handled only in an adequately ventilated hood. CAUTION: Always add acid to water.
4.4 In preparing, dispensing and handling ammonium hydroxide, use chemical goggles or face shield, impervious gloves and an impervious apron. Dispense, mix and handle ammonium hydroxide only in an adequately ventilated hood.
4.5 Perform the extraction procedure (see 8.2) using chlorobenzene inside an adequately ventilated hood. CAUTION: Chlorobenzene vapors are toxic and flammable.
4.6 Chlorobenzene is a flammable liq- uid and should be stored in the laboratory only in small containers away from heat, open flame and sparks.
4.7 An eyewash/safety shower should be located nearby and a self-contained breathing apparatus should be readily available for emergency use.AATCC 154 pdf download.