AASHTO T 85:2014 Standard Method of Test for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate.
4.1. A sample of aggregate is immersed in water to essentially fill the pores. It is then removed from the water, the water dried from the surface of the particles, and weighed. Subsequently the sample is weighed while submerged in water. Finally the sample is oven-dried and weighed a third time. Using the mass and weight measurements thus obtained and formulas in the method, it is possible to calculate three types of specific gravity and absorption.
5.1. Bulk specific gravity is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the volume occupied by the aggregate in various mixtures containing aggregate, including portland cement concrete, bituminous concrete, and other mixtures that are proportioned or analyzed on an absolute volume basis. Bulk specific gravity is also used in the computation of voids in aggregate in T 19M/T 19. Bulk specific gravity (SSD) is used if the aggregate is wet, that is, if its absorption has been satisfied. Conversely, the bulk specific gravity (oven-dry) is used for computations when the aggregate is dry or assumed to be dry.
5.2. Apparent specific gravity pertains to the relative density of the solid material making up the constituent particles not including the pore space within the particles which is accessible to water.
5.3. Absorption values arc used to calculate the change in the mass of an aggregate due to water absorbed in the pore spaces within the constituent particles, compared to the dry condition, when it is deemed that the aggregate has been iii contact with water long enough to satisfy most of the absorption potential. The laboratory standard for absorption is that obtained after soaking dry aggregate in water. Aggregates mined from below the water table may have a higher absorption, when used. if not allowed to dry. Conversely, some aggregates when used may contain an amount of absorbed moisture less than the required amount of time to achieve the soaked condition. For an aggregate that has been in contact with water and that has free moisture on the particle surfaces, the percentage of free moisture can be determined by deducting the absorption from the total moisture content determined by T 255.
5.4. The general procedures described in this method are suitable for determining the absorption of aggregates that have had conditioning other than the required soak, such as boiling water or vacuum saturation. The values obtained for absorption by other methods will be diffirent than the values obtained by the required soak, as will the bulk specific gravity (SSD).
5.5. The pores in lightweight aggregates may or may not become essentially filled with water after the required soaking period. In fact, many such aggregates can remain immersed in water for several days without satisfying most of the aggregates’ absorption potential. Therefore, this method is not intended for use with lightweight aggregate.AASHTO T 85 pdf download.